Liujiang Basin: Treasure of Geology, Hundreds of Millions of Years in One Glance
Reporters Wang Jiangang, You Song, Li Jianglong, Lu Bo, Zhang Na, Han Dong, Zhao Hai, Liu Wenhao from QETDZ channel
Introduction: In search of the treasure left by time and history. Welcome back to the serial report “I love my hometown - generous gifts from history”. After departing from the city centre of Qinhuangdao, driving 12 km north along the Qinhuangdao-Qinlong Highway, and climbing over a small hill, you will arrive at Liujiang Basin. In the past, this was a place most famous for small coal mines and cement plants. However, it is also a place abundant with unique geology treasure in China. 20 kilometers from north to south and 15 kilometers from east to west, the basin reserves all the evidence of the crustal movement and nature's evolution. Today, our reporter will take you into the natural geological museum of Liujiang Basin to see how incredible the earth’s evolution has been.
Text: In order to explore the remains of geological evolution in Liujiang Basin, you must go to Liangjiashan Mountain. Liangjiashan Mountain is next to the Qinhuangdao-Qinglong Highway, which is an inconspicuous hill. But in the eyes of geological enthusiasts, this is a mountain full of treasure. There are a variety of paleontological fossils that can simply be found everywhere. Led by Jiang Yaojian, a geologist and professor of Northeast Petroleum University, the reporter went to Liangjiashan Mountain to hunt for treasure.
knock of the rocks ?
Jiang Yaojian, Secretary-general of Liujiang Geological & Cultural Research Association: There are many fossils mixed in the rocks. This round thing, we call it an ancient cup. Let’s go further, now we can see everything. There are snail-like things in the rock. We call this a "corner stone". This rotating thing is called a "snake snail". This round thing is called "the ancient cup" fossil. That's more complete. I think that if we continue to search this mountain, we may find more fossils.
Fossils are the most direct evidence of geological evolution. In Liangjiashan Mountain, more than 10 kinds of fossils have been discovered. They belong to the early Paleozoic Ordovician about 500 million years ago.
Jiang Yaojian: The stones of Liangjiashan Mountain are all limestone, which is rich in the fossils of ocean creatures. It shows that before the rock was formed, there must have been sea or vast ocean. There is also evidence of changes in land and sea and crustal movement in this region.
There is also a lot of evidence on the crustal changes in Liujiang Basin. Led by Prof. Jiang, we arrive at Jiguanshan Mountain near Balinggou village.
Jiang Yaojian: Jiguanshan looks like the crown of a rooster, with the rocks on top composing the "crown". These rocks are quartz sandstone in sedimentary rock. The environment of the mountain is a coastal beach environment. The rock below is called metamorphic granite, which is formed in the earth's crust. Previously underground, the quartz sandstone formed in the coastal environment and the granite formed deep in the earth's crust have now risen to form a mountain. This situation indicates that this place has experienced crustal movement, which is a strong evidence for geological evolution.
Who would have thought that this seemingly solid land, a majestic towering mountain, was at the bottom of the sea for four times. What a great natural power! It squeezes, tears, throws, reins in the solid earth like plasticine, then throws it down, leaving a stunning and extremely rich geological landscape.
Ji Yang, Professor of Northeastern University, has been working on the research and protection of the Liujiang Basin. After his retirement, he also served as the chairman of the Liujiang Geological Culture Research Association.
Ji Yang, chairman of the Liujiang Geological Culture Research Association: a variety of geological phenomena are commonly seen in our country. But here, we can observe so many geological phenomena in a small basin, which is unique in the country and even in the world. Therefore, we should look at it this way. The Liujiang Basin is a gift from nature.
In the past 100 years, the geological landscape of the Liujiang Basin has become famous both at home and abroad. There are tens of thousands of geology and geography experts, including more than a dozen academicians, who have been studying here. Nowadays, it also receives more than 20,000 teachers and students from 80 universities for scientific research and field geology internships. It is the largest base in China for geoscience research, teaching and science. It has made important contributions to the cultivation of geological talents in China.
Ji Yang: In Chinese geological community, there is a saying that if you want to study geology, you must go to the Liujiang Basin. Because of this saying, I feel very proud to be a citizen of Qinhuangdao.
Han Dong: Geographically, the Liujiang Basin is a small basin with an area of only a few hundred kilometers. But for ordinary people, it is still very time consuming to make a whole tour. In 2014, the Liujiang Geo-science Museum was officially opened, which demonstrate the essence of all the geological phenomena of the entire Liujiang Basin in one place.
The Liujiang Geoscience Museum is located near Shangzhuangtuo Village and consists of five units including the Department of Earth Sciences, the Geological Relics Hall of Liujiang Basin, the Rock and Mineral Fossil Specimen Hall, and the Qinhuangdao National Geological Park Landscape Hall. The museum uses maps, videos, models, simulation scenes, and physical specimens to reveal the evolution of the universe, the solar system and the earth's structure. It also explains the geological and biological processes and changes in Liujiang Basin, and the peculiar geological natural landscape of Qinhuangdao.
Lu Dakuan, who is in charge of the Management Service of the Geology Practice and Internship Base Centre of Hebei Liujiang Basin: All the rocks exhibited in the museum are collected from Liujiang Basin. For example, this marl was formed in the Proterozoic Era. The bamboo leaf-like limestone next to it was formed in the Paleozoic era. The two eras are more than 300 million years apart, so it is said that by visiting the Basin, one can experience hundreds of millions of years at a glance.
Han Dong: Qinhuangdao is very fortunate to own the geological treasure trove of Liujiang Basin. It’s a gift of nature. Liujiang Basin is not far from downtown. It takes about 20 minutes to drive there from the city centre. If you have time, take a look, explore the blue planet we live on, feel the power of nature, respect and protect it.